## Joining Extractions of Regular Expressions

(Dominik D. Freydenberger, Benny Kimelfeld, Liat Peterfreund)

### Abstract

Regular expressions with capture variables, also known as
*regex formulas,* extract relations of spans (interval
positions) from text. These relations can be further
manipulated via the relational Algebra as studied in the context
of *document spanners,* Fagin et al.'s formal framework for
information extraction. We investigate the complexity of
querying text by Conjunctive Queries (CQs) and Unions of CQs
(UCQs) on top of regex formulas. Such queries have been investigated
in prior work on document spanners, but little is known about the
(combined) complexity of their evaluation.

We show that the lower
bounds (NP-completeness and W[1]-hardness) from the
relational world also hold in our setting; in particular,
hardness hits already single-character text. Yet, the upper
bounds from the relational world do not carry over. Unlike
the relational world, acyclic CQs, and even gamma-acyclic
CQs, are hard to compute. The source of hardness is that it
may be intractable to instantiate the relation defined by a
regex formula, simply because it has an exponential number
of tuples. Yet, we are able to establish general
upper bounds. In particular, UCQs can be evaluated with
polynomial delay, provided that every CQ has a bounded
number of atoms (while unions and projection can be
arbitrary). Furthermore, UCQ evaluation is solvable with FPT
(Fixed-Parameter Tractable) delay when the parameter is the
size of the UCQ.

### Versions of the Paper

### Additional Comments

- This applies the notion of functional automata and the definition of spanner semantics through ref-words, both of which were started in an earlier paper.